Tips from the Web

Welcome to my collection of screenplay writing  information found on the Internet. 

While researching Vampire related movies for my first screenplay, Afterlife, I found these tips from Joss Whedon to be very inspirational and useful.

Tips from Joss Whedon

Joss Whedon is most famous for creating Buffy the Vampire Slayer, its spin-off Angel and the short-lived but much-loved Firefly series. But the writer and director has also worked unseen as a script doctor on movies ranging from Speed to Toy Story.

 Here, he shares his tips on the art of screenwriting.

1. FINISH IT
Actually finishing it is what I’m gonna put in as step one. You may laugh at this, but it’s true. I have so many friends who have written two-thirds of a screenplay, and then re-written it for about three years. Finishing a screenplay is first of all truly difficult, and secondly really liberating. Even if it’s not perfect, even if you know you’re gonna have to go back into it, type to the end. You have to have a little closure.

2. STRUCTURE
Structure means knowing where you’re going; making sure you don’t meander about. Some great films have been made by meandering people, like Terrence Malick and Robert Altman, but it’s not as well done today and I don’t recommend it. I’m a structure nut. I actually make charts. Where are the jokes? The thrills? The romance? Who knows what, and when? You need these things to happen at the right times, and that’s what you build your structure around: the way you want your audience to feel. Charts, graphs, coloured pens, anything that means you don’t go in blind is useful.

3. HAVE SOMETHING TO SAY
This really should be number one. Even if you’re writing a Die Hard rip-off, have something to say about Die Hard rip-offs. The number of movies that are not about what they purport to be about is staggering. It’s rare, especially in genres, to find a movie with an idea and not just, ‘This’ll lead to many fine set-pieces’. The Island evolves into a car-chase movie, and the moments of joy are when they have clone moments and you say, ‘What does it feel like to be those guys?’

4. EVERYBODY HAS A REASON TO LIVE
Everybody has a perspective. Everybody in your scene, including the thug flanking your bad guy, has a reason. They have their own voice, their own identity, their own history. If anyone speaks in such a way that they’re just setting up the next person’s lines, then you don’t get dialogue: you get soundbites. Not everybody has to be funny; not everybody has to be cute; not everybody has to be delightful, and not everybody has to speak, but if you don’t know who everybody is and why they’re there, why they’re feeling what they’re feeling and why they’re doing what they’re doing, then you’re in trouble.

5. CUT WHAT YOU LOVE
Here’s one trick that I learned early on. If something isn’t working, if you have a story that you’ve built and it’s blocked and you can’t figure it out, take your favourite scene, or your very best idea or set-piece, and cut it. It’s brutal, but sometimes inevitable. That thing may find its way back in, but cutting it is usually an enormously freeing exercise.

6. LISTEN
When I’ve been hired as a script doctor, it’s usually because someone else can’t get it through to the next level. It’s true that writers are replaced when executives don’t know what else to do, and that’s terrible, but the fact of the matter is that for most of the screenplays I’ve worked on, I’ve been needed, whether or not I’ve been allowed to do anything good. Often someone’s just got locked, they’ve ossified, they’re so stuck in their heads that they can’t see the people around them. It’s very important to know when to stick to your guns, but it’s also very important to listen to absolutely everybody. The stupidest person in the room might have the best idea.

7. TRACK THE AUDIENCE MOOD
You have one goal: to connect with your audience. Therefore, you must track what your audience is feeling at all times. One of the biggest problems I face when watching other people’s movies is I’ll say, ‘This part confuses me’, or whatever, and they’ll say, ‘What I’m intending to say is this’, and they’ll go on about their intentions. None of this has anything to do with my experience as an audience member. Think in terms of what audiences think. They go to the theatre, and they either notice that their butts are numb, or they don’t. If you’re doing your job right, they don’t. People think of studio test screenings as terrible, and that’s because a lot of studios are pretty stupid about it. They panic and re-shoot, or they go, ‘Gee, Brazil can’t have an unhappy ending,’ and that’s the horror story. But it can make a lot of sense.

8. WRITE LIKE A MOVIE
Write the movie as much as you can. If something is lush and extensive, you can describe it glowingly; if something isn’t that important, just get past it tersely. Let the read feel like the movie; it does a lot of the work for you, for the director, and for the executives who go, ‘What will this be like when we put it on its feet?’

9. DON’T LISTEN
Having given the advice about listening, I have to give the opposite advice, because ultimately the best work comes when somebody’s fucked the system; done the unexpected and let their own personal voice into the machine that is moviemaking. Choose your battles. You wouldn’t get Paul Thomas Anderson, or Wes Anderson, or any of these guys if all moviemaking was completely cookie-cutter. But the process drives you in that direction; it’s a homogenising process, and you have to fight that a bit. There was a point while we were making Firefly when I asked the network not to pick it up: they’d started talking about a different show.

10. DON’T SELL OUT
The first penny I ever earned, I saved. Then I made sure that I never had to take a job just because I needed to. I still needed jobs of course, but I was able to take ones that I loved. When I say that includes Waterworld, people scratch their heads, but it’s a wonderful idea for a movie. Anything can be good. Even Last Action Hero could’ve been good. There’s an idea somewhere in almost any movie: if you can find something that you love, then you can do it. If you can’t, it doesn’t matter how skilful you are: that’s called whoring.”

  

TEN COMMANDMENTS OF PITCHING YOUR STORY TO STUDIOS by William Goldman
How to Pitch Your Script

1. NEVER FORGET WHOM YOU ARE TALKING TO. They really don’t want to listen to you but know that maybe, just maybe, you can help out their career.

2. BE BRIEF, IN AND OUT IN FIVE MINUTES. Unless they ask you to stay.

3. YOU ARE NOT TELLING THE STORY, YOU ARE THROWING OUT A HOOK. Keep it simple. Not a lot of detail. One or two lines.

4. GRAB THEM. You want them to think.

5. PEOPLE ARE BUSY. Remember that.

6. DO NOT PITCH MORE THAN ONE IDEA PER MEETING

7. IF YOU CAN, LEAVE AN OUTLINE. A couple of pages where you start with what you hit them with, and thicken a bit.

 

8. NEVER READ A PITCH. Executives love eye contact.

9. NEVER FORGET THAT EVEN IF THEY BUY YOUR PITCH, MOST STUDIOS ARE PLANNING ON FIRING YOU AS SOON AS YOU HAND THEM YOUR FIRST DRAFT.

 

THE MAP OF PITCHING YOUR STORY

Here is an effective way to PITCH YOUR STORY, but remember, there are no rules, and you might have your own way. This is just a suggestion that has worked.

INTRODUCE YOURSELF
-Who you are and what you’ve done that’s revelant, that will generate interest.
-Be specific and brief. Just give a strong impression of what is great about you, and move on.

ESTABLISH RAPPORT
-Before you meet them, RESEARCH the person you’re talking to. Then, based on your research, you can:

 

-Make a positive comment about their work and/or ask them a question regarding their experiences and current position
-Talk about why your PITCH and your project is right for their project.

INTRODUCE THE PROJECT
-Talk about your connection to the material and your passion for it
-Start your pitch by asking them a question: Ex. What would you do if you could fly? If you had to choose between saving your wife or daughter, what would you do?
-THEN GO TO YOUR PLANNED LOGLINE (See LOGINE notes)

SYNOPSIS OF THE STORY
-A vivid one- or two-minute telling of your story, sticking to the catalyst, major plot points and climax
-DON’T GET LOST IN THE DETAILS
-Convey both the INTERNAL and EXTERNAL story
-JUST CREATE an emotional reponse in the listener

REQUEST
-Tell them what you’re looking for from them, AND THEN ask them what they are looking for

SUMMARY
-rehearse your pitch
-Do not read your pitch from the page.
-It’s a conversation. A sell, sell approach will not work.
-Don’t get lost in detail.
-Make sure you include the ENDING.
-Walk in with respect for yourself and your material.

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